The following articles provide scientific evidence of the efficacy of GM1
GM1 has been shown to be safe in human clinical trials – see results of 5 year PD study by Schneider, Spinal Cord Injury study by Geisler and Stroke study.
GM1 crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB) – see results of 5 year PD study.
GM1 has neuroprotective and neuroregenerative properties – see LD Holler PhD Thesis.
GM1 treatment has been shown to be beneficial in treating multiple neurological diseases including Huntington’s Disease, Parkinson’s Disease, Alzheimer’s Disease, Spinal Cord Injury, Stroke, and Traumatic Brain Injury. For more information see the articles listed below.
Restoring GM1 ganglioside expression ameliorates axonal outgrowth inhibition and cognitive impairments induced by blast traumatic brain injury. Nature Scientific Reports, Sci Rep. 2017 Jan 23;7:41269. doi: 10.1038/srep41269. Rubovitch V, Zilberstein Y, Chapman J, Schreiber S, Pick CG
Huntington’s Disease (HD)
Injecting Ganglioside GM1: An Experimental Approach for Huntington Disease That Soon Might Be Ready for Human Trials. Neurology Today April 5, 2012 p.23-24. Tom Valero. http://journals.lww.com/neurotodayonline/Fulltext/2012/04050/Injecting_Ganglioside_GM1__An_Experimental.5.aspx
Special ‘brain fat’ injection helps HD mice. Directly injecting the brains of HD mice with a good type of fat called Ganglioside GM1 provides dramatic benefit. Feb. 14, 2012. Dr Jeff Carol edited by Dr. Ed Wild. http://en.hdbuzz.net/072
Ganglioside GM1 induces phosphorylation of mutant huntingtin and restores normal motor behavior in Huntington disease mice. Proceedings National Academy of Science Feb. 8, 2012, Vol 109, no 9 pp. 3528-3533. Alba Di Pardo, Vittorio Maglione, Melanie Alpaugh, Melanie Horkey, Randy S. Atwal, Jenny Sassone, Andrea Ciammola, Joan S. Steffan, Karim Fouad, Ray Truant, and Simonetta Sipione. (multicenter study) www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1114502109
Parkinson’s Disease (PD)
A randomized, controlled, delayed start trial of GM1 ganglioside in treated Parkinson’s disease patients. Journal of Neurological Sciences. 2013. 324 p140-148. Jay S. Schneider, Stephen M. Gollomp, Stephanie Sendek, Amy Colcher, Franca Cambi, Wei Du. Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA. DOI: 10.1016/j.jns.2012.10.024
Deficiency of Ganglioside GM1 correlates with Parkinson’s Disease in Mice and Humans. Journal of Neurosciences, 2012. Gusheng Wu, Zi-Hua Lu, Neil Kulkarni and Robert W. Ledeen. Department of Neurology and Neurosciences, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ.
GM1 ganglioside in Parkinson’s disease: Results of a five-year open study. Journal of Neurological Sciences, 2010. 292(1):45-31. Jay Schneider, Stephanie Sendek, Constantine Daskalakis, Franca Cambi. Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA.
Parkinson’s disease Improved function with GM1 ganglioside treatment in a randomized placebo‐controlled study. Neurology. 1998. 50(6):160-1636. J. S. Schneider, PhD, D. P. Roeltgen, MD, E. L. Mancall, MD, J. Chapas-Crilly, BS, D. S. Rothblat, PhD and G. T. Tatarian, DO. Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA.
Spinal Cord Injury
The Sygen® Multicenter Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study. 2001. SPINE Vol. 26, No.245 pp. S87-S98. Fred H. Geisler, William P. Coleman, Giancinto Grieco, Devinder Poonina and the Sygen® Study Group.
GM1 ganglioside therapy in acute ischemic stroke. Italian Acute Stroke Study-Hemodilution + Drug. 1989. Stroke published by American Heart Association. C Argentino, ML Sacchetti, D Toni, G Savoini, E D’Arcangelo, F Erminio, F Federico, FF Milone, V Gallai and D Gambi. Dipartimento di Scienze Neurologiche, Viale dell’Universita, Roma, Italy. http://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/20/9/1143.
GM1 Ganglioside Inhibits β-Amyloid Oligomerization Induced by Sphingomyelin. Amaro M, Šachl R, Aydogan G, Mikhalyov II, Vácha R, Hof M. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2016 Jun 13. doi: 10.1002/anie.201603178. [Epub ahead of print]
Role of ganglioside metabolism in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease—a review. Journal of Lipid Research. 2008. 49(6):1157-1175. Toshio Ariga, Michael P. McDonald, and Robert Yu, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA; and Departments of Neurology and Anatomy & Neurobiology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN. http://www.jlr.org/content/49/6/1157.full.pdf+html
Monosialoganglioside improves memory deficits and relives oxidative stress in the hippocampus of rat model of Alzheimer’s disease. Neurol Sci. 2012. DOI 10.1007/s10072-012-1263-y Rui Yang, Qingjun Wang, Lianqui Min, Rubo Sui, Jain Li, Xuewne Liu. Department of Neurology and Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning Medical University, Jinzhou 121001, Liaoning, China.
Ovine GM1 Gangliosidosis
Ectopic Neuritogenesis and Ganglioside Alterations in Ovine GM1 Gangliosidosis. Larry D. Holler, DVM, PhD. 1993. PhD Thesis. Washington State University.